Oct 11

Go Ape! Team building event

A group of PGRs and staff headed to Go Ape at Itchen Valley Country Park for a team building event on 8th October to welcome new students to CDT Sustainable Infrastructure for Cities.

We completed the Treetop Adventure and some brain teaser games.

Treetop Adventure course included two loops. Loop 1 was made up of confidence building crossings with lots to cling to, where the longer loop 2 had wobbly bridges to test our skills. Both ended with a super zip wire ride back to the ground.

Team games brought out our competitive side. We were asked to work out how to cross a space with planks and piers, pick up blocks with ropes and bungees, and race as teams with planks on our feet. These problem solving exercises challenged us and required us to work together as a whole group or in smaller teams.

 

Oct 06

The response of a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population to reintroduced Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) habitat modification

The response of a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population to reintroduced Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) habitat modification

 

Robert James Needham, Martin Gaywood – NatureScot, Angus Tree – NatureScot, Nick Sotherton – The Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust, Dylan Roberts – The Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust, Colin Bean – NatureScot and Paul Kemp University of Southampton ICER

 Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences(In Press)

Record type: Article
In Press date: 10 April 2021
Keywords: beaver dams, salmonids, beaver ponds, beaver habitats, ecosystem engineers

Abstract

Globally, freshwaters are the most degraded and threatened of all ecosystems. In northern temperate regions, beaver reintroductions are increasingly used as a low-cost and self-sustaining means to restore river corridors. River modifications by beavers can increase availability of suitable habitat for fish, including salmonids. This study investigated the response of a population of brown trout to reintroduced beaver habitat modifications in northern Scotland. The field site comprised two streams entering a common loch; one modified by beavers, the other unaltered. Electrofishing and PIT telemetry surveys indicated abundance of post-young of the year (post-YOY) trout was higher in the modified stream. Considering juvenile year groups (YOY and post-YOY) combined, abundance and density varied with year and season. In the modified stream, fork length and mass were greater, there was a greater variety of age classes, and mean growth was positive during all seasons. Beavers had profound effects on the local brown trout population that promoted higher abundances of larger size classes. This study provides important insight into the possible future effect of beavers on freshwater ecosystems.

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Sep 30

River Restoration Design

On Thursday 30th September 2021, Dr Daniella Montali-Ashworth gave a presentation to CDT SIS and CDT SICities students online. Daniella was in the first cohort of PGRs for CDT SIS and she graduated in 2019.

She now works as an Ecohydraulic Engineer for Five Rivers – website Five Rivers is a specialist in the consultation, design, delivery and monitoring of ecological and environmental solutions. Daniella favours nature based solutions in her designs and works closely with clients to provide effective river restorations and fish passes.

‘River Restoration Design’.

River restoration is a growing environmental sector with wide ranging benefits for habitat biodiversity, recreation, flood management and landscape development. The talk will cover some of the projects I have delivered over the last few months and the design work required to ensure they are a success.

Sep 16

Cities of the Future: How smart communities should be focused on being connected, sustainable and citizen centric

CDT SIS and SI Cities seminar 16th September 2021

Cities of the Future: How smart communities should be focused on being connected, sustainable and citizen centric

Abstract:  

Chris will argue that our current trajectory in enabling smart communities is still too focused on the technology and not on the outcomes.  So how do we initiate a step change in our approach?  Chris will explore some different strategies that have worked in other places.   From these experiences outline a plan that will help smart communities become connected, sustainable and citizen centric.

Chris Cooper –  Smart Cities Consultant KnowNow Information Ltd

Chris is a smart cities consultant, a digital innovator,  a Chartered Engineer (IET)  and a social scientist.     Chris helped write the original set of smart community standards for the BSI.  An experienced and active practitioner and consultant on the use of and evolution of these smart community standards.   This gives Chris a unique insight into seeing how applying standards can be beneficial to communities ‘smart projects’.    https://www.kn-i.com/blog/making-smart-cities-smart-the-knownow-role/

Chris Cooper CDT seminar – UoS – Sept ’21

In this seminar Chris spoke about

  • Our current trajectory in enabling smart communities is still too focused on the technology and not on the outcomes.
  • So how do we initiate a step change in our approach?
  • We will explore some different strategies that have worked in other places.
  • From these experiences outline a plan that will help smart communities become connected, sustainable and citizen centric.

Aug 13

The response of common minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus, to visual cues under flowing and static water conditions

The response of common minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus, to visual cues under flowing and static water conditions

James Miles, Andrew Vowles, Paul Kemp

The International Centre for Ecohydraulics Research, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Southampton

Animal Behaviour

Volume 179, September 2021, Pages 289-296
 Available online 13 August 2021.
Animal Behaviour

Highlights

 

Minnows associated strongly with static visual cues (vertical stripes).

Association increased in flowing water and decreased when in a group.

Visual cues likely provide a reference point from which to control position.

Strong individual association may reflect a sheltering or refuge seeking response.

Reduced use of visual cues by groups may reflect security or information transfer.

While fixed visual cues provide reliable reference points for navigation in static water, it remains unclear whether fish energetically benefit from their presence in flowing water. Furthermore, benefits of visual feedback from fixed sources may be less for group members that can gain additional information from others. Using an open-channel flume, this study investigated how the response of fish to stationary visual stimuli is influenced by flow and group membership under two treatments: vertical black and white stripes placed on (1) both side walls of the channel or (2) one side wall only compared to a control where both walls were uniform white. The responses were compared in flowing and static water, and between individuals and groups of five. Fish exhibited a positive affiliation for the visual cues, travelling more slowly and spending more time closer to the striped walls. Fish were more edge oriented under flowing conditions, presumably utilizing the lower velocities at the wall boundary to reduce energy expenditure. When only one wall presented visual cues, individual fish spent more time associated with it in flowing water, suggesting some energetic benefit in lotic conditions. This may result from a greater ability to maintain station or control position relative to a reference point and/or the use of visual stimuli as a proxy indicator of physical structure which may provide drag-reducing refuge. A lesser association with the striped wall in static water suggests that visual cues provide other nonhydrodynamic benefits, such as physical refuge from predators or opportunities for crypsis. Conversely, less association of shoals with the striped walls may reflect a greater dependence on information provided by conspecifics or increased security associated with being part of a group. This study indicates that fixed visual cues likely provide several benefits that vary depending on flow and group membership.

Keywords

collective behaviour
environmental stimulus
fish
group behaviour
optic flow

Jul 30

Fatigue crack growth in IN718/316L multi-materials layered structures fabricated by laser powder bed fusion

Fatigue crack growth in IN718/316L multi-materials layered structures fabricated by laser powder bed fusion

M.S.Duval-ChaneacabN.GaoaR.H.U.KhancM.GilesaK.GeorgilasbX.ZhaoaP.A.S.Reeda

Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Southampton
b
NSIRC, TWI Ltd. Cambridge
c
TWI Ltd., Cambridge

International Journal of Fatigue

Volume 152, November 2021, 106454 Available online 30 July 2021.

Highlights

Layered specimen of 316L and IN718 has been fabricated by multiple material additive manufacturing.

The crack propagation mechanism was investigated under three point bending, and recorded via direct current potential drop method, then analysed via correlation between the stress intensity factor and the final fracture surface.

Mechanisms of shielding and antishielding in the crack propagation were investigated through a 4 alternated layer specimen.

Relation between the as-built microstructure and the tensile properties of each alloy was used to put in perspective the results obtained in the different crack propagation tests.

Abstract

Multi-materials additive manufacturing (MMAM) allows the functional optimisation of components by tailoring the addition of alloys at different design locations in a single operation. In this study Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) technique was used to manufacture layered specimens combining IN718 and 316L materials. The microstructure and mechanical properties were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile, micro and nanohardness testing. The fatigue tests were performed to determine the crack propagation process through multi-layer specimens in the as-built (AB) state.

Keywords

Multi-materials
Additive manufacturing (AM)
Interface
Fatigue analysis
Crack growth rate

    Jul 22

    Life after the CDT

    The CDT SIS and SIC seminar on Thursday 22nd July 2021.

    Presentation by Diego Panici, Post doctoral researcher at the University of Exeter.

    Diego was a PGR in the first cohort of CDT SIS students starting in 2014 and he graduated in 2019 with his iPhD. This presentation shows the development of his research work from the first summer project through PhD research into the start his academic career. His interest in debris jams at bridge piers in rivers has developed and he told us that the work he did and support he received in the CDT SIS has shaped the research he is doing now.

    CDT-SIS presentation – Diego Panici

    CDT SIS research images

     

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